Rabu, 15 Juli 2015

Dyslexia on Taaree Zameen "Every Child is Special" Movie (Hindi Movie)

Dyslexia on Taaree Zameen "Every Child is Special" Movie
(Hindi Movie)

Talking about language dissorder, it also inseparable from one thing that is very close relation with one of the disorders of the brain that affects some people, especially children, namely Dyslexia. Dyslexia comes from the Greek language, the word "dys" meaning difficulty, and the word "lexis" meaning language. A disruption in humans that causes difficulty in recognizing the writing, reading, spelling. A dyslexic children have difficulty in school activities such as writing, reading, numeracy and others even to the age where it should already be done by the normal age. As shown in the film "Taare Zameen Par", A movie originally from India which tells about a boy about 9 years old who have difficulty in reading, writing and calculation and it can be said that it is a disorder of the brain that is Dyslexia, but by the time, by certain treatments makes dyslexic can be normal.

According TL Harris and R. E Hodges (Corsini, 1987: 44,). Dyslexia leads to children who can not read despite vision, hearing normal intelligence and language skills appropriate age.
Bryan and Brayan as cited by Mercer (1987, 310-311) .Disleksia as a form of difficulty in learning the components of words and sentences, which historically shows slow language development and almost always problematic in writing.

A dyslexic having problems on some things like writing problem. In the movie "Taree Zameen" also showed that the children with Dyslexia having problem in writing. Dyslexic can not distinguish article / letter which is alike, writing letters in reverse, even writing the word with the composition of random letters. Examples of mistakes made by dyslexic sufferers are, dyslexic wrote the letter "b" to "d" and opposite, reversing the letter "S" to be like the number "2" (mirror image), and so on.

In addition beside problems in writing, reading becomes very difficult for people with Dyslexia. The difficulty of reading happen because dyslexic considers that the text in front of the sufferers is not clear, so people difficult to understand what to read.

The next is a matter of calculation  problems. Apparently, Dyslexic is not only have problem in reading and writing course, counting also becomes very difficult for the dyslexyc. This disorder has a name dyscalculia. As shown in the movie, people are faced with a few of math question, just to answer a multiplication question, for patients is very difficult and think hard
to find the answer.
From some of the problems faced by people with dyslexia appear clearly many questions about what actually happens to the patient. Factors where it came from someone affected by dyslexia there are three, namely, genetic factor, problem at hearing from an early age, andthere is also due to the combined factors between gen and also hearing problems since child. Research John Bradford (1999) in the US found indications that 80 percent of all subjects studied by the agency has a history or background of family members who have learning disabilities.
According to scientists dyslexia also occur because of differences in certain brain involved in dyslexia. brain indicates that dyslexia is the result of structural differences in the brain, especially in the left hemisphere. Brains of people with dyslexia showed very little activity in an area known to be very important to connect the written words with their phonetic components. Therefore, to read, people with dyslexia should foster alternative neurological pathways. People with dyslexia compensate by taking more of the front of the brain called Broca's area, which is associated with other aspects of language processing and speech
However, have Dyslexia does not mean the child has no other artificer. Dyslexic is not inferior to normal people in general related to intelligence, in the Movie shown that despite have a Dyslexia, the sufferer is still have extraordinary abilitie in painting. Not only that, some of world figures like Albert Einstain physics scientist, painter Leonardo Da Vinci, the inventor of the light bulb Thomas alpha Edison, and others who have disruption experienced but still able to use intelligence.

Dyslexia is a disorder that do not look physically. Patients will look the same physically as normal people. Problem difficulties in reading, writing, calculation and so on is not a permanent disorder in the sense that there is a solution / treatment that can be done by experts, educators, parents to make trouble proficiency level will be lost. It can be seen from the experience of people with dyslexia as a child and the disorder is lost when the sufferer growing up by certain treatment.

Rabu, 25 Maret 2015

Merapi, Love, and Cook (Fiction)

Merapi, Love, and Cook

         The story of the adventures of a group of youths who experienced something they never thought before. Experience that almost killed them, but because of the wonders that come to them unexpectedly, the advanture which almost makes them die it all turned into an extraordinary experience that will not easily be forgotten
         The story began when a group of young men who are a theater group community of six people, consisting of three men and three other women, they are deliberately planning a trip / adventure climbing one of the volcanoes in Indonesia, Mount Merapi in Yogyakarta in order to post the completion of their annual theater performance that just held one week ago with great success.
         On Friday afternoon at 3 they departed, but before they buy some pastry in shop arround campus. After three hours they finally reached the base camp of Mount Merapi climbing in cold conditions because the temperature at the base camp area reaches 10 degrees Celsius, and make them want to buy food or drinks can be a little warm up from the cold end they decided to buy ginger ale, drink made of ginger that can make their bodies so warm. After an hour of rest in basecamp, to six young men continue their adventure, they start to climb to the summit of Mount Merapi at seven in the evening. Step by step, one by one they made stair steped, then of approximately one hour journey they reached the first  post. One among named Niko said "Well, we've got the first post, tired, we take a break for please?", And then suddenly one of their friends named Nadia passed out unconscious which makes all surprised. "Nadia, are you okay ?, nadia wake up, wake up" a man named Randy with quickly trying to lift Nadia and trying to make it wake up.
         After a few minutes later Nadia was awake from her sleep, they continued the climb. Two hours later they were almost at the top. When they are 300 meters before the peak of the sound of thunder and heard an explosion loud enough voice that makes them panic and try to find out the source of the sounds they hear. "What is, what sound is that?" Panic all.
Amid the panic them, suddenly Niko look an explosion and appearance of fire, and also a kind of lava that were located not far from them to be, and it turns out it was lava from the eruption of Mount Merapi, they actually have know that the mountain was still very active and could erupt at any time. Increasingly loud voice eruption, lava coming out more and more and moved closer to their stand. With panic Nico invite other friends to flee to protect themselves from the burning lava "guys, let's run towards the cave that is in there!", They all ran and eventually they managed to escape from the pursuit of lava, they found a cave with a very large size. They entered into the cave, but strangely cave is not the dark even none of lighting equipment there, they confused but they do not really care about it because the most important thing is their thought they've been able to escape from the lava that can burn their bodies . Then all surprised, because suddenly the cave was covered by a huge rock that made them will not be able to get out of the cave later. It adds Reviews their frustration "Oh my god, what is goin 'on? Niko shouted frantically. Then finally they no longer know what they should do, they all fell silent, nobody speaks, three women crying in fear.
         In the middle of their panic, suddenly Randy approaching Nadia, and tried to calm Nadia and try to entertain while singing to Nadia "Do not you cryyy tonight, do not you cryyy tonight" (Guns and roses song ) then he said "Do not cry dear, everything is gonna be fine, trust me!". Seeing Randy approaching Nadia, whatever Niko also like Nadia has long felt frustrated and went to Nadia and Randy, he said "Randy what are you doing ?, go away !, Do not try to Seduce her". Then Randy got angry and pushed Niko to fall to the ground. Seeing this incident Nadia shouted "Stop it !, Do not be like children please!". "To entertain all of us, how if we playing Truth or Dare game?" Ask Nadia to all friends, Everybody agree and the game is begin. Randy took a bottle that is in the bag and then rotate the bottle, then bottle it leads to Nadia, Randy offering Truth or Dare to Nadia, Nadia choose Truth. Randy Gives a question to Nadia, "the question is, Do you love me? Or Niko? ", Nadia was shocked and immediately looked towards Niko and randy, Nadia said," I love both of you! "But I have a challenge for both of you, WHO win the challenge, he will be my boy. Nadia Gives a challenge, it is cooking challenge. Without wasting musch time, Niko and Randy immediately take a simple cooking utensils typical of a climber and start to cook. After 5 minute later, Randy has completing the challenge to produce Humberger and Pizza which is created by Randy turns with the help of magic he had, after a few minutes Niko finished with a very simple spaghetti. Nadia directly tasting and assessing food Niko and Randy and she said "I prefer to choose Niko's food than Randy, Because Randy use his magic, while Niko is doing my challenge pure without any magic, and even Niko cooking with simple but she cooks with sincere and full of love, So Niko, I love you so much, and Randy please go away from my life! ".

Minggu, 28 Desember 2014

The Picture of Dorian Gray a book from Oscar Wilde


Judul                           : The Picture of Dorian Gray
Penulis                         : Oscar Wilde
Tahun terbit                 : 1989
Penerbit                       : Oxford University Press
Caracter                       :
v  Dorian Gray
v  Basil Hallward
v  Lord Henry
v  Lady Agatha
v  Sybil Vane
v  James Vane
v  Mrs Vane

Basil Hallaward is an exelent artist. He has a potrait which he made by himself. The man in the potrait was Dorian gray, a man who basil ever met. Dorian was a handsome young boy. He was 20 years old. But basil doesnt want to bring his potrait to the art gallery. Lord Henry Wotton, basil's friend always ask the reason why basil doesnt want bring his potrai tho the art gallery. But basil answer that he was afraid if he exhibiting the potrait it will show his secret. What secret? Thats is the secret that basil has a feeling to Dorian.

One day basil and henry met dorian grey. Henry went to garden with dorian and they talking much together. Henry said to dorian that there's nothing more importen in the world than a beauty. Time is enemy, everybody would getting old, we never be young again. Dorian was afraid about it. Henry's spokes were very influences to dorian.

In the morning, Henry went to his aunt's house. He wanna know more about Dorian Gray. Lady agatha, Henry's aunt told everything about Dorian Gray.

A month later Dorian gray said to Basil Henry that he was in love with a girl named Sybil Vane, an theatre actress. He loves the girl so much. He always came to theatre to see the girl.
In the other place, Sybil Vane told to her mother that she was in love with Dorian Gray. But Mrs. Vane didn't like it. Because she thought that Sybil was too young to think of love.
One day Dorian watch Sybil in theatre. But in that night Sybil was not show her best performance. And because of it Dorian gray said to Sybil that he didn't love sybil anymore. Sybil was very sad to heard it. Until one day sybbil decide to kill herself and died.
Day by day, the picture of dorian was getting older and older. No one who know this secret. But one day basil, the artis of this potrait knew that Dorian's face became ugly and old. Then Dorian getting angri to Basil and he killed Basil with a knive. And Dorian asked his friend Alan Campbell, a scientis to destroy basil's dead body.

Dorinan Gray was tired wot all of his terrible life. He wanna try to forget his bad past. He would destroy her bad picture, but when he dug the knive to the picture he fell to the floor and change became an old and ugly man, and the picture became a handsome man. Dorian gray died.

Laskar Jambu Alas (Selalu Di Hati)

Laskar Jambu Alas
(Selalu Di Hati)

Kehadiranya bak oase di padang pasir gersang
Kehadiranya menjadi senyum segar di tengah hidupku yang usang
Kehadiranya bak pengobat luka yang merajang
Kehadiranya menjadi kebahagiaan dengan bumbu kasih sayang

Laskar Jambu Alas . . .
Selalu Di hati . . .

Keluarga penuh cinta 
Keluarga penghapus duka dan air mata
Keluarga yang merindukan surgaNya
Keluarga yang berjuang dan bersatu menuju RidhoNya

Laskar Jambu Alas . . .
Selalu Di hati . . .

Bersamanya Aku melakukan perjuangan suci
Perjuangan  dengan tujuan ridho illahi
Bersamanya Aku Berjuang di JalanNya
Berjuang karena Alloh ta'ala

Laskar Jambu Alas . . .
Selalu Di hati . . .

Keluarga muslim yang indah
Keluarga yang semakin eratkan tali ukhuwah
Keluarga dan akan tetap menjadi keluarga
Keluarga yang penuh cinta selamanya

Laskar Jambu Alas . . .
Selalu Di hati . . .

Didi Yuliyono
Yogyakarta, 29 Desember 2014\
Pukul 01.11 wib

Poetry: Love Versus Learning by Constance Naden

Love versus Learning
By Constance Naden

Alas, for the blight of my fancies! 

Alas, for the fall of my pride! 
I planned, in my girlish romances, 
To be a philosopher’s bride.

I pictured him learned and witty, 
The sage and the lover combined, 
Not scorning to say I was pretty, 
Nor only adoring my mind.

No elderly, spectacled Mentor, 
But one who would worship and woo; 
Perhaps I might take an inventor, 
Or even a poet would do.

And tender and gay and well-favoured, 
My fate overtook me at last: 
I saw, and I heard, and I wavered, 
I smiled, and my freedom was past.

He promised to love me for ever, 

He pleaded, and what could I say? 
I thought he must surely be clever, 
For he is an Oxford M.A.

But now, I begin to discover 
My visions are fatally marred; 
Perfection itself as a lover, 
He’s neither a sage nor a bard.

He’s mastered the usual knowledge, 
And says it’s a terrible bore; 
He formed his opinions at college, 
Then why should he think any more?

My logic he sets at defiance, 
Declares that my Latin’s no use, 
And when I begin to talk Science 
He calls me a dear little goose.

He says that my lips are too rosy 
To speak in a language that’s dead, 
And all that is dismal and prosy 
Should fly from so sunny a head.

He scoffs at each grave occupation, 
Turns everything off with a pun; 
And says that his sole calculation 
Is how to make two into one.

He says Mathematics may vary, 
Geometry cease to be true, 
But scorning the slightest vagary 
He still will continue to woo.

He says that the sun may stop action, 
But he will not swerve from his course; 
For love is his law of attraction, 
A smile his centripetal force.

His levity’s truly terrific, 
And often I think we must part, 
But compliments so scientific 
Recapture my fluttering heart.

Yet sometimes ‘tis very confusing, 
This conflict of love and of lore— 
But hark! I must cease from my musing, 
For that is his knock at the door!

Sabtu, 27 Desember 2014

Poetry: How Do I Love Thee? by Elizabeth Barret Browning

How Do I Love Thee?
by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806–1861)

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.

I love thee to the depth and breadth and height

My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight

For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.

I love thee to the level of everyday’s

Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light.

I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;

I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.

I love thee with the passion put to use

In my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith.

I love thee with a love I seemed to lose

With my lost saints,—I love thee with the breath,

Smiles, tears, of all my life!—and, if God choose,

I shall but love thee better after death.

Senin, 08 Desember 2014

Great Female Figure : Susi Pudjiastuti

Great Female Figure : Susi Pudjiastuti
Talking about figures in Indonesia would be a very interesting thing. There are a lot of figures that we know either artists and arrays of the Indonesian government. In addition, talking about figures that exist in Indonesian government, there will be many figures who often get more attention from the public for several reasons that make it often discussed. From the list of names of the figures in the ranks of the government of Indonesia, there is one of figure who becomes the hot topic of the Indonesian people, we certainly know a figure  Susi Pudjiastuti. She is woman figure who came to public with all the controversy that invite the pros and cons of the society which acts as judges always rate and comment on a public figure including Susi. As individual has their assessment and their own opinion, so there are many peoples who admire Susi Pudjiastuti, but many others are cynical about her. Regardless of the pros and cons about her, she is a great figure who have a lot of experiences and achievements.
Susi Pudjiastuti is a woman who was born in Pangandaran January 15, 1965. She was selected by the new president of Indonesia Joko Widodo become one of the ministers in the Cabinet Kerja 2014-2019 period as minister of fisheries and marine field, a field that became one of the ideals of Indonesia to become a good maritime nation and become the world maritime shaft. In adition, this is not easy task for her to be at the forefront in developing Indonesia in the field of maritime and she never think before that he would be in this position. The election of her as minister of fisheries and marine itself is enough to invite the pros and cons of Indonesian people. Various opinions emerged about her, ranging from doubt of many people to Susi’s work which incidentally only armed with not even a junior high school diploma and they are pesisimis with Susi due to Susi’s unusual attitude, which is usually an functionary has the character traits most authoritative, seemed polite and so on. In the other hand, not a few are accept and support her with all its shortcomings because behind all the downside he is also a great woman. There are many positive things that we can learn from Susi Pudjiastuti that this may be the reason why she is now chosen as the number one woman in the office of Indonesian marine fisheries minister. Since a young age Susi is a persistent figure, proved after he quit his studies class II high school when he decided to open bussines as fish seller in 1983, until a few years later due to her hardwork she succed to developed his bussines. Then in 1996 she was at a higher level, she set up a seafood processing plant company named PT ASI Susi Pudjiastuti Marine Product and the company has successfully exported its products in Asia and American market. A remarkable achievement of someone who only has a junior high school diploma who pioneered the bussines from zero up to now can handle a large company. Her achievement not only to successfully establish PT ASI Susi Marine Product, more than that Susi started bussines in the field of aviation. Started when the company require air transport to fulfill its export activities abroad Susi buy an aircraft. Over time, increasing its plane and she started establish PT ASI Pudjiastuti Aviation, an aviation services company, which until now has 50 units of aircraft. Susi success in the business world makes a lot of people admire her and terms From Zero to Hero-even deserve we attach to Susi who are struggling small business starting up in the end he became the leader of the two companies at once. Being the number one in the ministry of marine and fisheries, Susi relinquish his position as boss at two companies that he led. All that he did for his new assignment to be more able to focus on taking care of the existing program of work in ministries related to marine and fisheries in Indonesia. In ministry, she is a leader who is smart, assertive, courageous and disciplined. Not long ago Susi have started running programs ministry that he did certainly one of them is for the welfare and progress of Indonesian fishery as a maritime nation.

         Knowing the story of Susi Pudjiastuti of being a small business owner, then become big businesswoman and was promoted become a minister was not wrong when she called as a great lady. It also be a valuable lessons for people who like to judge a person just from outside. Proverb "do not judge book by it's cover" is true, we can not judge someone just from what is visible, such as physical appearance for example. In addition, we can also learn to judge someone not on the negative side only, try to look from the positive side. Susi Pudjiastuti’s style looks like uneducated but in reality he is a great female figure with a lot of achievements and experiences, so we should give appreciation and it can be used as inspiration for the country's children.

Lagi belajar nulis nich. Mohon Kritik dan Saran untuk tulisanku yang jelek ini dong :)

Senin, 13 Oktober 2014

Pengaruh Positif dari Internet dalam Kehidupan Manusia

Pengaruh Positif dari Internet dalam Kehidupan Manusia

Internet merupakan salah satu bentuk/bukti akan kemajuan sebuah teknologi dalam kahidupan. Maraknya kemajuan teknologi memberikan dampak yang luar biasa dalam kehidupan manusia sehari-hari. Contohnya dengan adanya internet, internet membantu memudahkan dalam mengakses informasi atau apapun yang berguna dalam menunjang aktivitasnya sehari-hari. Hampir seluruh lapisan masyarakat menggunakannya dalam kehidupanya sehari-harinya mulai dari siswa untuk menunjang aktivitas belajarnya, pun dengan mereka yang telah berkutat didunia kerja. Keberadaan internet dengan segudang manfaatnya juga kerap mengundang perdebatan di kalangan masyarakat, bahwasanya mereka juga khawatir dengan efek negativ yang muncul akibat perkembangan internet, walaupun tidak dapat dipungkiri memang internet tetap menjadi sesuatu yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh banyak orang.
Dalam tulisan ini argues that eksistensi internet dalam era globalisasi ini lebih banyak mendatangkan efek positif dari pada sisi negatifnya. So that we also should be able to memaksimalkan penggunaan internet dari sisi positifnya.
In this globalization era kemajuan teknologi pun terus berkembang pesat. Seperti halnya sesuatu sudah tidak asing lagi dalam kehidupan kita yaitu “Internet”. Eksistensi internet di zaman modern ini memang sangat berpengaruh dengan sejumlah manfaat yang ditimbulkan dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan. Meski tak sedikit orang khawatir dengan efek negatifnya, namun tetap saja internet menjadi primadona dalam kehidupan bagi masyarakat diseluruh penjuru dunia. Beberapa manfaat yang bisa diperoleh dari penggunaan internet antara lain, sebagai sumber mendapatkan informasi, sebagai media komunikasi, sebagai sarana penunjang pendidikan, sarana bisnis, dan media hiburan.
1.      Sebagai sumber informasi
Kebutuhan akan informasi memang dapat dipenuhi melalui banyak media seperti halnya, surat kabar, televisi,  serta media-media lainya. Namun tak dapat dipungkiri bahwa telah banyak yang mengakui bahwa internet merupakan sumber informasi terlengkap yang menyediakan berbagai jenis informasi yang menjadi kebutuhan masyarakat dan pastinya informasi yang ada pun selalu up-to date. Tak hanya itu saja, semua informasi tersebut dapat dengan sangat mudah diakses/diperoleh. Hanya dengan mengetikan kata kunci informasi yang hendak dicari internet melalui perangkat komputer, handphone, dan perangkat pendukung sejenisnya, informasi akan terpapar di depan sepasang mata kita dengan jumlah yang tidak terbatas. Namun jika berbicara mengenai keakuratan informasi tersebut kembali lagi pada bagaimana kita pandai untuk memilah berbagai informasi yang tersedia.
2.      Media komunikasi
Salah satu manfaat internet adalah sebagai sarana komunikasi. Dengan kata lain dengan bantuan internet kita bisa menjalin sebuah interaksi secara sekunder. Dengan aplikasi-aplikasi pendukung komunikasi yang tersedia di internet memungkinkan orang bisa saling bercakap-cakap/mengobrol. Seperti halnya dengan aplikasi jejaring sosial Facebook, Twitter yang bisa melakukan obrolan melalui tulisan, atau bisa juga dengan fasilitas video call yang memungkin orang bisa bercakap-cakap dengan bisa bertatap muka satu sama lain melalui layar monitor dari perangkat yang digunakan, dan berbagai aplikasi sejenisnya. Dengan ini bisa membuat sebuah percakapan yang bisa dilakukan oleh beberapa orang meski penggunanya berada terpisah oleh jarak.
3.      Sarana penunjang pendidikan
Bagi seorang pelajar manfaat internet sangat dirasakan dalam proses belajarnya. Masih berkaitan dengan manfaat internet sebagai sumber informasi, pelajar juga sangat membutuhkan tambahan ilmu dari sumber lain disamping ilmu yang diperoleh di kelas, yaitu bisa juga mengakses berbagai situs yang memuat konten ilmu pengetahuan yang dibutuhkan seorang pelajar dalam proses belajarnya. Sumber-sumber ilmu yang disajikan secara online dengan berbagai bentuk seperti buku online, audio/video dan lain lain yang dikemas secara menarik membuat internet juga menjadi media belajar yang menjadi favorit para pelajar.
4.      Ladang bisnis
Bisnis bagi mereka yang memiliki jiwa wirausaha tidak hanya berlangsung di dunia nyata. Mereka memanfaatkan kecanggihan internet sebagai tempat untuk melangsungkan proses jual beli dan memasarkan produknya baik berupa barang maupun jasa. Bahkan berbisnis di dunia maya memiliki keunggulan yaitu promosi tentang produk akan bisa dilihat oleh masyarakat luas hanya dengan menyebarluaskan informasi melalui internet, dengan kata lain tidak perlu turun lagsung ke tempat diseluruh penjuru daerah. Kegiatan ini biasa dikenal dengan istilah E-commerce.
5.      Sarana hiburan
Manfaat internet sebagai sarana hiburan memang benar. Berbagai macam hiburan tersedia di internet. Hiburan musik, video, film, media sosial dan masih banyak lainya membuat internet menjadi media hiburan yang sangat diminati oleh pengguna karea untuk mengaksesnya pun sangat mudah.
Demikian beberapa manfaat penggunaan internet di berbagai aspek yang bisa diperolah oleh pengguanya. Meskipun memang dari setiap manfaat-manfaat internet ada juga efek negatifnya, seperti pornografi, penipuan, ketergantungan, kejahatan dunia maya, etc, namun semua itu kembali lagi terhadap individu untuk selalu bijak dalam menggunakannya.
Kesimpulan dari semuai ini adalah bahwa internet telah banyak memberikan manfaat terhadap kehidupan manusia dalam kehidupan sehari-harinya, mulai dari sebagai sumber informasi hingga sebagai sarana hiburan dan membantu mempermudah pekerjaan manusia di era globalisasi seperti sekarang ini. Dan mengenai beberapa kemungkinan efek buruk yang ditimbulkan itu semua kembali lagi kepada setiap individu untuk menggunkan internet dengan bijak, karena segala sesuatu apabila dilakukan secara berlebihan pasti akan berdampak tidak baik.

 by : Didi Yuliyono

Selasa, 13 Mei 2014


Edisi "Election"

1. Presidential : The Indonesian government system
2. Republic : Indonesian government forms
3. Democracy : government of the people, by the people and for the people
6. Incumbent : Become a candidate for the second time
9. President : Indonesian head of state

1. Parliament : House of peoples representatives
3. Dictator : authoritarian leader
4. Campaign : political................  is an  activity aimed to get support from the voters( in election)
5. Bicameral : A system of government in which the legislature comprises two houses
7. Legistatives : having a power to make laws
8. Abstention : when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day)